The technology world is evolving with time and programming languages are taking the front seat in the world. Many best programming languages are now utilized for Web Development, Machine Learning, Data Science, etc. In addition, the popularity of programming languages has raised the demand for job opportunities and applications.
Behind every software, web, and digital application that we use nowadays, the most hidden and significant feature is their programming language. Therefore, every web developer or mobile app development company needs to stay updated on the latest business trends and should be informed about the latest, emerging, top, and most popular programming languages.
If you want to choose the most popular programming language for your project requirements and objectives, you can have a look at the few best programming languages ruling the industry. Let’s get started by understanding what a programming language is.
What is a Programming Language?
Programming is a set of instructions provided to a computer to execute it. Computers understand and think in binary strings 1s and 0s, and because of this, programming language interprets into something that humans can understand. A programming language is a set of instructions, command lines required for the development of a program.
Programmers write code in a high-level language. The computer hardware recognizes it when this code is compiled into a low-level language. Programming languages are classified into two levels: low-level and high-level programming languages.
Low-level programming languages are quite similar to binary code. As a result, they are more difficult for humans to read, although they are easier than 0 and 1. The advantage of low-level languages is that they are fast and work just like a PC does.
High-level programming languages are similar to the way people communicate with each other. They use similar words that we use in our everyday life. This suggests that they are easier to program than low-level programming languages, although more work is required to translate them into machine code.
The runtime difference between high-level and low-level programming languages is usually milliseconds. High-level languages work in most cases.
Types of Programming Languages
Let’s have a look at different types of programming languages:
Procedural Programming Languages
The procedural functions can manage the variables except for the value returns for these functions. The programming worldview derived from structured programming defines a series of well-organized systems and stages of program development. This type of programming performs a series of statements that initialize the result.
For the most part, this type of programming makes use of variables, heavy loops, and some other elements, which is moreover a major difference among procedural and functional languages. It provides a set of instructions that break down a program into functions, constraint statements, declarations, and variables.
Various programming editors or IDEs help clients develop programming code using at least one programming language. Some popular and widely used examples of procedural programming languages: Pascal, Java, BASIC, FORTRAN, etc.
Functional Programming Languages
Functional programming is usually utilized for storing the information, often evading loops in recursive functions support. This type of programming language also emphasizes the return values of functions and also has a side effects section.
Functional programming configuration is a lambda calculus with recursion to perform computations and limited assignment matching. It does not support iteration like loop statements and conditional statements such as “if-else”.
In functional languages, it is easy to understand the emotional problems in their programming model, which is confusing to them. However, the program code is decoded in machine language, which is also a problem for wireframe programming. You can initiate some algorithmic calls and change query parameters.
Object-oriented Programming Languages
The main principles of object-oriented programming languages are encapsulation, expressing everything that is required. Object-oriented programming systems (OOPS) provide many features such as inheritance, encapsulation, polymorphism, abstraction, classes, and objects. This type of programming language thinks about a problem and then breaks it down into a set of objects, offering a solution to any particular problem.
Scripting Programming Languages
A script or scripting language is a type of programming language that offers an exclusive run-time setting that robotizes the execution of the task, these are similar to the assignments that are then again executed by some human administrator. Operators combine for run conditions and create plugins and extensions for existing applications. Scripting is usually procedural.
Most of them consist of a few object-oriented language elements yet have their category as they are not developed languages for huge systems development support in general. Language in system administration, web applications, gaming applications, and interactive media. Instead of compiling, it interprets programming languages over time.
Logic Programming Languages
This type of programming language is centered on formal logic. This means that it still won’t ask the machine to do anything, it uses the constraints on what it has to consider. Logic languages are easier to program in C in an object-oriented way.
In fact, many languages include features and goals from different areas that support the increased vitality of this type of language. However, many programming languages are incompatible with other types of languages. PROLOG, Answer Set programming (ASAP), and Datalog are important logic programming languages whose rules are declared in classes.
Top 8 Programming Languages for Web & Mobile App Development
The demand for the top most popular programming languages is continuously changing each year because of the development of the most innovative applications worldwide. There are nearly 600 programming languages for web & mobile application development in the world. Programming languages are growing rapidly to meet the requirements of the latest technologies available in the market.
When choosing the most popular programming languages today or in the future, you should focus on the most developing technology, and the skills needed to achieve your business goals. Here, we have listed some of the most popular programming languages on the basis of various criteria, like popularity, career prospects, open-source, latest trends, etc.
Python is a fast and easy-to-deploy programming language commonly used for building flexible web applications. It is generally recognized as one of the best programming language that can be easily learned. Many popular applications like Instagram, Pinterest, YouTube, SurveyMonkey are developed in Python.
Python development offers great library support and has a huge developer network. The best part about Python development is that it is considered ideal for developing both iOS and Android apps. The Python programming language is very flexible and easy to read, making it again a widely-used programming language for multi-script applications.
Python app development also provides multiprocessing and multithreading, which makes the application much better at executing and responding to commands.
Pros of Python:
- Wide-ranging library support.
- Thanks to OOPS characteristics, creating and using classes and objects is easy.
- Emphasis on code readability.
- Perfect for building prototypes and testing out ideas quicker
- Can scale even the most complex applications
Cons of Python:
- Poor Threading because of Global Interpreter Lock
- Not appropriate for mobile computing
- Slow execution time.
- The Python database access layer is in its early phase.
- The level of access to the database is immature.
Java development is commonly utilized for developing venture-scale web applications. Java is remarkably stable. As a result, several large startups utilize it. Moreover, there are several benefits of Java for developing Android apps.
Fortunately, Java has overcome its limitations and made Java compatible with the cloud thanks to the GraalVM initiative. Likewise, OpenJDK has a free option instead of the limited Oracle JDK. Java development also works on the “write once; work anywhere” principle.
Pros of Java:
- Follows the OOPS model
- Automatic memory allocation and garbage collection
- Support for multithreading
- Availability of Open-Source Libraries
- High-end Security
Cons of Java:
- Templates are absent
- Some bugs may take place while running JAVA in a virtual machine – JVM
- Expensive Memory Management
- Complex executions because of poor garbage collection
- Slower than C and C++
C and C++ Programming language
C is one of the most popular and widely used programming languages. However, it is often judged for unsafe programming, unintentional complexity, and a small number of features. Also, many programmers tend to use C ++ because it is much faster and more stable.
C++ programming language also offers Standard Template Library (STL). STL is a well-prepared set of libraries for various algorithms, arithmetic operations, and data structures. C / C ++ is an exception for applications like 3D games.
Pros of C and C++:
- Faster execution of programs as compared to many other programming languages [C/C++]
- Provides an extraordinary level of movability [C]
- Runs near the system equipment and provides a low level of abstraction [C/C++]
- Programs are more efficient and easier to understand [C/C++]
- Structures the reason for understanding more random programming languages [C/C++]
Cons of C and C++:
- Lack of run-time validation [C/C++]
- Complex syntax [C/C++]
- Not an easy choice for learning programming [C/C++]
- No garbage collection or active memory allocation [C/C++]
- Problems of buffer overflowing and memory corruption [C/C++]
- It is a very efficient web programming language.
- Richer interface to a website
- Extremely versatile
- Simple implementation
- Used for developing a diverse range of applications
- Only one inheritance is allowed
- The issue of Malicious Intent
- Interpreted Differently by Different Browsers
- Inaccessibility of copy or equal method
Originated as an iOS programming language by Apple, Swift has become the premier programming language for developing iOS apps. It is a special choice for developers as it offers a variety of features and capabilities to be incorporated into an iOS app.
Pros of Swift:
- Easy to add new and innovative features
- Projects are easier to scale
- Intuitive and Powerful
- Easy-to-learn programming language
- Supported by Apple
- Interoperable with Objective-C
Cons of Swift:
- Considered as unstable language
- Limited community support
- Limited resources
- Require regular updates
- No support for legacy projects
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Pros of PHP:
- Large numbers of automation tools for testing and installing applications
- Easy to start for making web pages
- Easy to learn
- Remarkably compatible with effortless integration
Cons of PHP:
- Not appropriate for big applications
- Error handling is Poor
- Not modular and is challenging to maintain
- Lacks in security
- The framework requires better error handling.
According to the latest data from Google Trends, the popularity of the C# programming language in the US has begun to decline over the past two months. C# development is a general-purpose programming language developed by Microsoft. C# programming language is principally used for backend programming, building games via Unity, developing Windows mobile telephone apps, and several other use cases.
Pros of C#:
- Type-safe support.
- It has the same syntax as the C programming language
- Easily incorporated with the .NET library
- Rich sets of library functions and data types
- Automatic scalable and updateable
Cons of C#:
- Offers less flexibility than C+
- Incorporation with Windows
- Pointer types are not permitted.
- Involves decent effort and time to learn
- Resolving errors needs severe expertise and knowledge
It is developed by two well-known software developers, Rob Pike and Ken Thompson. Go, also known as Golang, is a programming language developed by Google. Go development offers outstanding support for multithreading.
As a result, it is used by many distributed systems-based organizations. Go is also used by many Silicon Valley startups. It is a practical system that is easy to learn, extensible, and uses the best programming languages.
Pros of Go:
- Backed by Google
- Ideal for developing SPAs (single-page applications)
- Smooth and free documentation
Cons of Go:
- Lack of Versatility
- Implicit Interfaces
- Poor library support
- No GUI library
- Virtual Machine Absence
The mobile app development platforms are continuously growing and evolving each day. Some programming languages may have already endured the test of time, while some are making their way towards popularity.
It may be devastating to look for the best programming language currently available, however, the features, performance, reliability, and other characteristics within each language are vital to helping you to develop a mobile application that will be prominent in your niche industry.
Choosing the right programming languages is significant to accomplish the purpose of your project. The developer needs to understand the project’s requirements or type of software and then opt for the programming language. We have listed here some of the top programming languages with their pros and cons to choosing the correct programming language as per your requirements.
A list of questions to ask, factors to consider, and the above-listed pros and cons, help you to make a sensible decision regarding which language to choose. After all, picking out the right mobile programming language and mobile app & web development company will help you to develop agile mobile apps that will help you to stand tall in this digital world.